2015-03-10 00:00


    This is the root directory. The mothership. The home field. The one and only top directory for your whole computer. Everything, and I mean EVERYTHING starts here. When you type ‘/home’ what you’re really saying is “start at / and then go to the home directory.”
    This is where the root user lives. The root user is the god of your system. Root can do anything, up to and including removing your entire filesystem. So be careful using root
    Here’s where your standard linux utilities(read programs) live — things like “ls” and “vi” and “more”. Generally this directory is included in your path. What this means is that if you type ‘ls’, /bin is one of the places your shell will look to see if ‘ls’ means anything.
    Here’s where the administrative and system configuration stuff lives. For instance, if you have samba installed, and you want to modify the samba configuration files, you’d find them in /etc/samba.
    Here’s where files that control peripherals live. Talking to a printer? Your computer is doing it from here. Same goes for disk drives, usb devices, and other such stuff.
    Here’s where your data is stored. Config files specific to users, your Desktop folder(whick makes your desktop what it is), and any data related to your user. Each user will have their own /home/username folder, with the exception of the root user.
    This is the Temporary folder. Think of it as a scratch directory for your Linux system. Files that won’t be needed by programs once their used once or twice are put here. Many Linux systems are set to automatically wipe the /tmp folder at certain intervals, so don’t put things you want to keep here
    Here’s where you’ll find extra utilities that don’t fit under /bin or /etc. Things like games, printer utilities, and whatnot. /usr is divided into sections like /usr/bin for programs, /usr/share for shared data like sound files or icons, /usr/lib for libraries whick cannot be directly run but are essential for running other programs.Your package manager takes care of the things in /usr for you
    Here’s where optional stuff is put. Trying out the latest Firefox beta? Install it to /opt where you can delete it without affecting other settings. Programs in here usually live inside a single folder whick contains all of their data, libraries, etc.
    这里主要存放那些可选的程序。你想尝试最新的firefox测试版吗?那就装到/opt目录下吧,这样,当你尝试完,想删掉firefox的时 候,你就可以直接删除它,而不影响系统其他任何设置。安装到/opt目录下的程序,它所有的数据、库文件等等都是放在同个目录下面。举个例子:刚才装的测 试版firefox,就可以装到/opt/firefox_beta目录下,/opt/firefox_beta目录下面就包含了运行firefox所需 要的所有文件、库、数据等等。要删除firefox的时候,你只需删除/opt/firefox_beta目录即可,非常简单。
    This is where most manually installed(ie. outside of your package manager) software goes. It has the same structure as /usr. It is a good idea to leave /usr to your package manager and put any custom scripts and things into /usr/local, since nothing important normally lives in /usr/local.
    Some distros use this folder to mount things like usb disks, cd or dvd drives and other filesystems.